Vladimir Vladimirovich Mayakovsky (7  July 1893, Bagdati, Kutaisi province — 14 April 1930, Moscow) - Russian Soviet poet. One of the greatest poets of the XX century.
In addition to poetry clearly distinguished himself as a playwright, scriptwriter, filmmaker,, film actor, painter, editor of "LEF" magazine ("Left Front"), "New LEF".
Vladimir Mayakovsky was born in the village of Bagdati Kutaisi province (in Soviet times, the settlement was called Mayakovsky) in Georgia, in the family of Vladimir Mayakovsky Konstantinovicha (1857—1906), served forester third discharge in Erivani province, from 1889 in Bagdati forestry. the poet's mother, Alexander Pavlenko Alekseevna (1867—1954), kind of the Kuban Cossacks, I was born in the Kuban, in the village Ternovskaya. In the poem "Vladikavkaz - Tbilisi" 1924 g. Mayakovsky calls himself a "Georgian". One of the grandmothers, Yefrosinya Osipovna Danilevskaya, - a cousin of the author of historical novels D. P. Danylevskoho. The future poet had two sisters: Lyudmila (1884—1972) and Olga (1890—1949), and two brothers: Constantine (He died at the age of three, of scarlet fever) and Alexander (He died in infancy).
AT 1902 Mayakovsky was enrolled in school in Kutaisi. Like his parents, he was fluent in the Georgian language. He participated in the revolutionary demonstrations, I read campaign brochures. In February 1906 year of blood poisoning his father died after, as the needle pricked his finger, stitching paper. Since Mayakovsky hated pins and pins, bacteriophobia remained lifelong.
In July of the same year Mayakovsky with his mother and sisters he moved to Moscow, where he enrolled in the class IV 5 th classical gymnasium (now the Moscow school number 91 at Cook Street, the building has been preserved), where he studied in the same class with his brother B. L. Şuroj Pasternaka. The family lived in poverty. In March 1908 He has been excluded from the 5 a class of non-payment of fees.
The first "polustihotvorenie" Mayakovsky published in the illegal "Rush" magazine, which was published the Third gymnasium. According to him, "It turned out incredibly revolutionary way and to the same extent ugly".
In Moscow, Mayakovsky met with revolutionary-minded students, I became interested in Marxist literature, at 1908 he joined the RSDLP. Promoter was in the trade and industrial subarea, in the years 1908-1909 three arrested (in the case of an underground printing press, on suspicion in connection with a group of anarchist expropriators, on suspicion of aiding the escape of women from politkatorzhanok Novinsky prison). In the first case he was dismissed with the transfer of supervision of parents by court order as a minor, acted "without understanding", the second and third case was dismissed for lack of evidence.
In prison Mayakovsky "scandal", so it is often transferred from part to part: Basmannaja, Meschanskaya, Myasnitskaya and, finally, Butyrskaya prison, where he spent 11 months in a solitary cell number 103.
In prison 1909 Mayakovsky year again began to write poetry, but he was dissatisfied with the written. In his memoirs he writes:
It turned out stilted and revplaksivo. Sort of:
In gold, in the forest purple dress,
The sun sparkled on the head of the church.
I waited: but in the months of days lost,
Hundreds of weary days.
I scribbled this whole notebook. Thank guards - when leaving away. And yet published b!
Despite such a critical attitude, Mayakovsky with this notebook numberest beginning of his work.
From prison after the third arrest, he was released in January, 1910 of the year. After his release, he left the party. AT 1918 , wrote in his autobiography: "Why not in the party? Communists worked on the fronts. In the arts and education until the compromisers. I used to fish sent to Astrakhan '.
AT 1911 was a friend of the poet bohemian artist Eugene Lang inspired the poet to painting classes.
Mayakovsky studied in the preparatory class of the Stroganov School, On the artist's studio. YU. Zhukovsky and P. AND. Kelina. AT 1911 he entered the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture - the only place, where we accepted without evidence of trustworthiness. Acquainted with David Burliuk, founder of the Futurist group "Gilea", He entered the poetic circle and joined the Cubo-Futurists. The first published poem was called "Night" (1912), it entered into a futuristic collection "Slap in the Face of Public Taste".
30 November 1912 It held its first public appearance in the artistic Mayakovsky basement "Stray Dog".
AT 1913 he published the first collection of Mayakovsky "I" (four cycle verses). It was written by hand, Basil Chekrygin equipped drawings and Leo Zhegin and propagated in an amount lithographically 300 copies. As the first section of this volume entered the book "Easy like moo" poems of the poet (1916). Also, his poems have appeared in the pages of Futurist almanacs "mare milk", "Dead Moon", "Roaring Parnas," et al., We began to be published in periodicals.
In the same year, the poet turned to drama. software tragedy "Vladimir Mayakovsky" was written and delivered. Decorations for her artist wrote of the "Union of Youth" P. n. Filonov and AND. WITH. Schoolboy, and the author himself made the director and the leading actor.
In February 1914 year Mayakovsky and Burliuk were expelled from school for public speaking. In the years 1914-1915, Mayakovsky worked on the poem "A Cloud in Trousers". After the First World War came the poem "War is declared". In August, Mayakovsky decided to sign up as volunteers, but he was not allowed, explaining that the political unreliability. Soon, their attitude to service in the imperial army Mayakovsky expressed in the poem "You!», which later became the song.
29 Martha 1914 year, together with Mayakovsky and Burliuk Kamenski she arrived on tour in Baku - in the "famous Moscow Futurists". The same evening, at the theater brothers MAILOVA Mayakovsky read a report on Futurism, illustrating his poems.
In July 1915 the poet met with Lily Jurevna and Osip Brik. In 1915-1917 years under the patronage of Mayakovsky Maxim Gorky military service in Petrograd in the automotive Training School. The soldiers were not allowed to be printed, but ego rescue Osip Brik, which bought the poem "The Backbone Flute" and "Cloud in Trousers" by 50 cents per line and printed. Anti-war lyrics: "Mom and killed in the evening the Germans", "Napoleon and Me", poem "War and Peace" (1915). Appeal to satire. "Hymns" cycle for the magazine "New Satyricon" (1915). AT 1916 he published the first large collection of "simple as moo". 1917 year - "The Revolution. Poetohronika ".
3 Martha 1917 year Mayakovsky headed the detachment of 7 soldier, who arrested the commander of the Training School, General Automotive P. AND. Sekreteva. curious, that shortly before this, 31 January, Mayakovsky got out of hand Sekreteva silver medal "For diligence". During the summer 1917 year Mayakovsky vigorously petitioned for recognition of it unfit for military service and was released in the fall of it.
Mayakovsky 1918 year starred in three films on his own script. In August 1917 year planned to write "Mystery Bouffe", which was completed 25 October 1918 year and delivered to the anniversary of the revolution (dir. vs. Meyerhold, his. TO. Malevich)
17 December 1918 the poet read the first time on the stage of the theater Sailor lyrics "Left March". In March 1919 the year he moved to Moscow, It starts to cooperate actively in the growth of (1919—1921), draws (as a poet and as a painter) for the growth of agitation and satirical posters ("ROSTA"). AT 1919 he published the first collection of the poet's works - "All composed by Vladimir Mayakovsky. 1909—1919». In 1918-1919, he acts in the newspaper "Commune Art". Propaganda of the world revolution and the revolution of the spirit. AT 1920 he graduated to write a poem "150 000 000», which reflected the theme of the world revolution.
AT 1918 Mayakovsky was organized by the group "Komfut" (communist futurism), at 1922 year - publishing IAF (Moscow Association of Futurists), which came out a few of his books. AT 1923 he organized a group of LEF (Left front Art), thick journal "LEF" (in 1923-1925, went seven rooms). Actively printed Aseev, Parsnip, Osip Brik, B. Arvatov, n. stranger, Tretyakov, Levidov, Škłoŭ etc.. Lef advocated the theory of the production of art, social order, literature fact. At this time, it published "On this" poem (1923), "Working Kursk, who reported the first ore, a temporary monument to the works of Vladimir Mayakovsky " (1923) and "Vladimir Ilyich Lenin" (1924). When reading by the author of the poem about Lenin at the Bolshoi Theater, accompanied by a 20-minute standing ovation, Stalin attended. About the "leader of the people" mentioned in verse Mayakovsky only twice.
During the Civil War Mayakovsky believes the best time of life, in the poem "Good!», written in the prosperous 1927 year, has a nostalgic head.
In 1922-1923 years in a number of works continued to insist on the necessity of world revolution and the revolution of the spirit - «IV International", "Fifth International", "My speech at the Genoa Conference", etc..
Mayakovsky in 1922-1924 made several trips abroad - Latvia, France, Germany; He wrote essays and poems about European experiences: "How does a democratic republic?» (1922); «Paris (Conversations with the Eiffel Tower)» (1923) and a number of other. AT 1925 It was held the longest of his journey: a trip to America. Mayakovsky visited Havana, Mexico City, and within three months appeared in various US cities with the reading of poems and reports. Later poems were written (collection «Spain. - Ocean. - Havana. - Mexico. - America") and the essay "My Discovery of America". In the years 1925-1928 he traveled to the Soviet Union, She performed in a wide variety of audiences. During these years the poet has published such works, as "Comrade Nette, Steamships and Men " (1926); "In the cities of the Union" (1927); "The story of Ivan Kozyrev caster ..." (1928). WITH 17 to 24 February 1926 year Mayakovsky arrived in Baku, He performed in opera and drama theater, before the oil workers in Balakhani.
In 1922-1926 years he worked closely with the "Izvestia", in the years 1926-1929 - to "Komsomolskaya Pravda". His works were published in magazines: "New world", "Young guard", Ogonjok ', "Crocodile", "Red Field", etc.. He worked in advertising and propaganda material, for which he was criticized Pasternak, Kataeva, Svetlov.
In 1926-1927 he wrote nine screenplays.
AT 1927 was restored LEF magazine called "New LEF". Altogether 24 number. In summer 1928 year Mayakovsky disillusioned with the LEF and left the organization and the magazine. In the same year he began to write his personal biography "I myself". WITH 8 October 8 December - a trip abroad, on the route Berlin - Paris. In November I came out I and II volume of collected works.
"Bug" satirical play (1928) and "Bathroom» (1929) They were delivered by Meyerhold. poet Satire, especially the "Bathhouse", persecution caused by the RAPP critics. AT 1929 the poet organized a group of "REF", but in February 1930 year resigned from her, joined RAPP.
Many researchers of creative development Mayakovsky liken his poetic life of a five-act with prologue and epilogue. As a kind of prologue to the creative way of the poet played tragedy "Vladimir Mayakovsky" (1913), first act of steel poem "Cloud pants" (1914—1915) and "The Backbone Flute" (1915), the second act - the poem "War and Peace" (1915—1916) and "Man" (1916—1917), third act - the play "Mystery-Bouffe" (first option - 1918, second - 1920-1921) poem "150 000 000» (1919—1920), the fourth act - the poem "Love" (1922), "About it" (1923) and "Vladimir Ilyich Lenin" (1924), fifth act - the poem "Good!» (1927) and "Bug" play (1928—1929) and "Bathroom» (1929—1930), epilogue - the first and the second entry in the poem "Breaking the Silence" (1928—1930) and the last letter of the poet "Everyone" (12 April 1930 of the year). The remaining product Mayakovsky, including numerous poems, gravitate to the different parts of the overall picture, which is based on the major works of the poet.
In his works, Mayakovsky was uncompromising, therefore inconvenient. In the works, he wrote in the late 1920s, began to emerge tragic motifs. Critics called him a "fellow traveler", and not "proletarian writer", as he himself would like to see. AT 1930 , he organized an exhibition, dedicated to the 20th anniversary of his work, but he strongly interfered, and the exposure itself, none of the writers and heads of state have not visited.
spring 1930 , the Circus on Tsvetnoy Boulevard was preparing a grand performance "Moscow burns" on the play by Mayakovsky, rehearsal was scheduled for 21 April, but the poet did not live up to it.
Mayakovsky was at the forefront of the Soviet advertising. For advertising and promotional activities of the poet has been criticized by B. Pasternak, AT. Kataeva and M. Svetlov.